Frecuently asked questions - FAQs

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Can all type of heaters be used for heating any kind of liquid?

NO, the thermal conductivity varies depending of the liquid and its solution.  That is the reason why Resistencias Tope S.A. designs every heater with the appropriate load (w/cm²) for each application. Furthermore the different materials have no the same reaction when submerged. Our technical department advices our customers in order to avoid corrosion and increase the longevity of the heater.


Which information is required in order to design the proper heater element?

  • Type of material to be heated
  • Quantity or flow
  • Material of the container
  • Ambient tempearture and temperature to be achieved.
  • Estimated time to reach the temperature
  • Voltage

How are Y and Delta three-phase connections?

See below the diagram



triphase connections

Which tolerances apply to our heaters manufacturing?

Why the quantity of the heaters received does not match with the quantity ordered?


On orders for products carried in stock, Tope will deliver the ordered quantity specified. However, in the manufacture of products it is agreed that Tope will be allowed production losses. Tope shall have the right to manufacture, deliver and invoice for partial deliveries of products as stated below:

1-6 units no variation
7-24 units ± 1 unit
25-74 units ± 2 units
> 75 units ± 3%

Tope will deliver exact quantities on products with a net price of 100.00 € or more. If buyer expressly requests no variation in delivered quantity of products with a total net price under 100.00 €, a ten percent (10%) surcharge will be added to the net billing on the invoice for such order.